Former researches were concentrated on in what measure people submit to requirements of group. But now Ash with surprise found out that two thirds of examinees refused to change the opinion though put pressure upon them. Ash described many types of behavior of these dissidents.
For example, the first child in a family can strengthen the bonds connecting parents, having become object of their general love. At the same time appearance of the child can promote dissociation of parents and to become the reason of jealousy and the conflict between them. If parents do not get on with each other, the child can take the part of one of them.
However it is not necessary to exaggerate a certain impersonality of the secondary groups which are allegedly deprived of an originality. People enter the friendly relations and form new groups at work, at school and in other secondary groups. If between the individuals participating in communication there are rather steady relations, it is possible to consider that they created new primary group.
Within the last two hundred years theorists of social sciences note weakening of a role of primary groups in society. They consider that industrial revolution, development of the cities and emergence of corporations led to creation of culturally depersonalized bureaucracy. For the characteristic of these tendencies such concepts as "mass society" and "decline of a community" were entered.
Results of experiment surprised researchers. When they extended the rest periods, labor productivity of workers increased. At reduction it continued to grow. But when the initial work-rest schedule was set, labor productivity grew even more. That most was observed at the experiments connected with change of duration of lunch and brightness of lighting. At any changes the level of development of women increased.
Harold Livitt (195 found out that some ways of communication are more effective, than others. It made some groups of five people and to everyone gave the list of symbols. At the disposal of each member of group there were some symbols, and, a little identical were available for all. The group was given a task to find the general for all symbols. Members of group were not allowed to speak among themselves, but they could give each other notes.
Why a gang - a characteristic example of group? For determination of the main lines of group we will consider Merton's position (19 Merton defines group as people who definitely interact with each other, realize the belonging to this group and are considered as her members from the point of view of other people.
In groups take place of an event and dynamic processes which are periodically repeating in a certain sequence. The exception of group and formation of roles concern to them pressure upon members of group, promoting their conformism.